Introduction. Established in 1911, IBM is an example of leadership in technology. IBM has been linked since the beginning of computing, being the company that invented the tabs (forerunner of the current computer). In 2012, IBM ranked No. 2 in the U.S. in terms of number of employees (435,000 worldwide, 100,000 in the United States). IT vertical market is characterized by a very important contribution to innovation and, therefore, the rankings are very dynamic field. IBM was able to create a value system in the organization and also a leadership system, thus managing to retain its leading position in the market.
Aim of the study. This paper highlights the most important moments in the IBM history.
Keywords: IBM, technology, leadership
Introduction. In 1979, Sony launched a portable Walkman range. For nearly a quarter of century, the Sony Walkman was the undisputed market leader and Sony was considered a top innovative company. Then, in 2001, Apple decided to launch the iPod, a new portable player. About 80% of the iPod technical components (e.g. memory, storage media) were produced by various companies within the Sony group. In 2004, iPod sales overtake Sony Walkman globally and become the new market leader in portable players. How was this possible? Theoretically, Sony held all conditions for launching the new generation of portable players, but instead, a new company – Apple – completely changed the market.
Aim of the study. This paper underline that innovation could appear in any company, not necessary the one that has all the prerequisites to provide a new innovation. Two very different firms, Sony and Apple Computer, are used as case study illustrations.
Keywords: Apple, Sony, technology, leadership, innovation
Introduction. In recent years, based on previous experience of the European Union to stimulate innovation at national and regional level there has been a paradigm shift in thinking about innovation in the creation of the concept of smart specialization. Smart specializations, taking into account the specificities and traditions of the regions have become a means to improve innovation and the competitive position of the European Union. In Poland, the regions introduce the concept of smart specialization in their innovation strategy. In the case of the Silesian Province for the most intelligent specializations were: energy, medicine and information and communication technologies. In these areas in the coming years should be focused stimulant level of innovation in the region, which gives a chance for faster development of the entire region.
Aim of the study. The paper presents the concept of smart specialization on the example of the Silesian province. Starting from the origins of the use of the concept of smart specialization in the European Union, shows the definition of the concept, the use of the concept in the development of regions and presented that specializations are considered smart for the Silesian province.
Keywords: smart specialization, innovation, production, technology, knowledge-based economy
JEL Classification: M14, M42, M48