Browsing: 2014, Vol. 20, Issue 2, December

Introduction. Established in 1911, IBM is an example of leadership in technology. IBM has been linked since the beginning of computing, being the company that invented the tabs (forerunner of the current computer). In 2012, IBM ranked No. 2 in the U.S. in terms of number of employees (435,000 worldwide, 100,000 in the United States). IT vertical market is characterized by a very important contribution to innovation and, therefore, the rankings are very dynamic field. IBM was able to create a value system in the organization and also a leadership system, thus managing to retain its leading position in the market.

Aim of the study. This paper highlights the most important moments in the IBM history.
Keywords: IBM, technology, leadership

Introduction. In 1979, Sony launched a portable Walkman range. For nearly a quarter of century, the Sony Walkman was the undisputed market leader and Sony was considered a top innovative company. Then, in 2001, Apple decided to launch the iPod, a new portable player. About 80% of the iPod technical components (e.g. memory, storage media) were produced by various companies within the Sony group. In 2004, iPod sales overtake Sony Walkman globally and become the new market leader in portable players. How was this possible? Theoretically, Sony held all conditions for launching the new generation of portable players, but instead, a new company – Apple – completely changed the market.

Aim of the study. This paper underline that innovation could appear in any company, not necessary the one that has all the prerequisites to provide a new innovation. Two very different firms, Sony and Apple Computer, are used as case study illustrations.
Keywords: Apple, Sony, technology, leadership, innovation

Introduction. What does leader development mean? It essentially refers to the extension of the capabilities and competences of individuals so as to effectively impact, in a positive way, by their behaviour and role playing, on the convergence of the entire organization to a common goal: success.

Aim of the study. This paper aims at rendering the main characteristics distinguishing leaders from common individuals, as well as from managers, while identifying the progressive steps and the key elements needed for leader development. Learning how to lead oneself is a prerequisite for leading others, but without continuous training, coaching or mentoring, and above all, without effective experience, individuals will never get to become real leaders.
Keywords: leader development, planned experience, action learning, coaching, mentoring
JEL Classification: M10, M12

Introduction. University professors, on the one hand, and professionals, such as doctors and lawyers on the other hand share many things in common, yet they are also different in key aspects. One of the most important differences lies the nature of the incentives and motivation to which they respond.

Aim of the study. This paper claims that turning academics into regular professionals would have far-reaching consequences from a wider social perspective. Emphasizing monetary rewards at the expense of intrinsic drivers would most likely change the nature and structure of the academic output.
Keywords: academia, monetary incentives, peer-production, public goods
JEL Classification: H44, I23, L33, M52

Introduction.Over time have been addressed many possible effects arising from inequalities of income. Criticism for each of these effects were immediate, most of them claiming that the selection of samples used to demonstrate the assumptions made were „carefully” selected in order to achieve the target and that there is not a direct relationship between income inequality (their increment) and these effects.

Aim of the study. Of the many effects that income inequalities have, identified in the literature, this paper will analyze three of them, namely: economic growth, human capital and social cohesion.
Keywords: income inequality, social cohesion, economic growth, human capital

Introduction. The shock wave of the economic crisis touched all aspects of economic, social and political life, has overturned the value systems and has disrupted the daily life of human resources. The lack of expectations, of a safe and legal income, insufficient jobs and undervalued human capital have generated such human resources developments that, in the future, will turn against those who now don’t have a coherent policy in this area.

Aim of the study. The purpose of this paper is to pull a warning signal about the erosion of the recovery opportunities of a very special resource which, unlike others, is endowed with reactive qualities and decision power over their own developments. Without a framework for its development, the quality human resource leaves Romania while the other part of it survives as it can. All these situations are beginning to be passed on to new generations, some abandoned any form of struggle, giving up hope, education, evolution, and some being ready to find a position outside the country. The question that remains is: who will build the future of this country and what ‘nationality’ will have this?
Keywords: human resource, human capital, labor market, unemployment, employment
JEL Classification: J210, J240, I250

Introduction.In the past decades, regional development has been a permanent source of interest among researchers and policymakers all over the world. The importance of entrepreneurship in the development of the national regional economies has been recognized largely in the specialty literature

Aim of the study. The aims of the present paper are to emphasize the importance of the rural entrepreneurship involvement in the regional development and to analyse the results of a research regarding the cooperation between the stakeholders of the local and regional development. A set of two hypotheses has been tested by using the data of a sociological survey focused on entrepreneurship and on the potential entrepreneurs from the rural area, belonging to five development regions. The results of our research highlight that the relationships between the rural area business environment and the other actors involved in the regional development (local public authorities, professional associations, institutions centred on regional development) are influenced by the framework of organisation and cooperation with the local business environment.
Keywords: entrepreneurship, potential entrepreneurs, public administration, regional development
JEL classification: P25; M13; R58

Introduction. An effective leadership, an evolutionary organizational culture and permanent connection to change may ensure a company’s success within an ever more dynamic competitive environment. The scientific approach of this paper is in line with theoretical and applied research in the field by the presentation of the connections existing among leadership, organizational culture and organizational change.

Aim of the study. The paper highlights the triad “vision – motivation – momentum”, the mission and the defining coordinates of leadership, the complementarity “new – tradition” in organizational culture, the stages of the change management process and the role of managers and leaders in the preparation and implementation of change projects. Leadership is essential in building and developing an appropriate cultural model, which, in its turn, is an important vector of organizational change processes in modern companies.
Keywords: leadership, organizational culture, organizational change, managers, leaders.
JEL Classification: M10, M12, M14.

Introduction. More and more leaders realize that the wider use of renewable energy brings many benefits on long-term, both for the enterprises and for the whole society in the process of developing the smart grids. One of the continuing concerns of any leader at any level must be the energy efficiency growth for all the users, individuals or legal entities. A good corporate leader supports a wider use of the renewable energy because thereby he promotes the care for the environment through the clean energy, the green economy idea in general, which will create him a positive image in the community and he will be considered a good representative of “corporate social responsibility”, by reducing the social ethical implications of strategies adopted.

Aim of the study. The more there will be more leaders who will promote the idea of production and use of alternative and renewable energy will be required also a greater involvement of the state in the use of the economic policy instruments in order to increase the investments in the infrastructure, to encourage the innovations in this field and to establish the regulations guiding of the specific markets mechanisms and the responsibilities and roles of each economic subject.
Keywords: renewable energy, energy efficiency, wind energy, solar energy, hydropower, energy potential, energy consumption
JEL Classification: D21, D24, L26, L94, M11, M14, Q42, Q47

Introduction. Individuals in a society often have different degrees of aversion about risk. When individuals with equal skills take risky activities with a high potential for profit, such as the establishment of a large business, some associations fail, others not. The presence of successful and unsuccessful collaborations in a society results in economic inequality, even when all individuals are identical in terms of level and field of education, the decisive factor is taking calculated risks or not.

Aim of the study. I will present in this paper the results of a study that I conducted in March 2014 related to influence of taking risks involved in opening a business as well as flexibility and adaptability on labor market.
Keywords: entrepreneurship, risk taking, flexibility, adaptability