Introduction. The innovative potential of a nation is determined by its members’ creative capacity, as well as by the design and implementation of strategies and policies that are meant to support the devise, experimentation and application of new ideas, respectively the transformation thereof both into tangible goods (products and services) and intangible ones (knowledge).
Aim of the study. The present paper approaches innovation as a vector of the new knowledge-based society, which consists of the main actions undertaken by the EU within the context of the “European Year of Creativity and Innovation”, as well as of the actions promoted through the Initiative known as “A Union of Innovation”, comprised by the Europe Strategy 2020. The final part of the paper illustrates the essential role of universities in developing knowledge-based and innovation- based society.
Keywords: innovation, knowledge-based society, intelligent growth, community actions, university.
Introduction. In 1979, Sony launched a portable Walkman range. For nearly a quarter of century, the Sony Walkman was the undisputed market leader and Sony was considered a top innovative company. Then, in 2001, Apple decided to launch the iPod, a new portable player. About 80% of the iPod technical components (e.g. memory, storage media) were produced by various companies within the Sony group. In 2004, iPod sales overtake Sony Walkman globally and become the new market leader in portable players. How was this possible? Theoretically, Sony held all conditions for launching the new generation of portable players, but instead, a new company – Apple – completely changed the market.
Aim of the study. This paper underline that innovation could appear in any company, not necessary the one that has all the prerequisites to provide a new innovation. Two very different firms, Sony and Apple Computer, are used as case study illustrations.
Keywords: Apple, Sony, technology, leadership, innovation
Economic and social analyses at a regional level in the light of competitiveness
Introduction. In most economic studies, competitiveness is considered a key issue of the political success/ failure. A major element which contributes to regional inequalities is the level of competitiveness. This element has been the subject of numerous studies over the past years, even though more attention was given to the national level and less to the regional one.
Aim of the study. This paper aims to highlight that the purpose of these regional analyses is the correlation of territorial objectives and problems with possible sources of financing, seeing to ensure optimal combinations between regional demand and supply, the optimal distribution of the income and of the results obtained, regional competitiveness, the location of clusters, etc.
Keywords: region, competitiveness, research-development, innovation
The human capital in the knowledge society. Theoretical and empirical approach
Introduction. We live today in a changing society based on the globalization and better valorisation of the human capital. The human capital is the central driver force for competitiveness and development of the new technology and patent and a necessary factor for their efficient use in the new society. In order to reach the competitiveness objective, the European Union member countries seek to develop their human capital value by increasing investment in education, science and technology development.
Aim of the study. Based on the panel econometrics techniques, this paper explores the statistical correlations between human capital components and national competitiveness within the EU economic context.
Keywords: human capital, knowledge society, innovation, competitiveness, globalization, education, science
Introduction. From the perspective of leadership change symbolizes the existence of the organization. Most assuredly, this is not a matter of change at all costs, but rather of increasing organizational performance and training people. As leadership is a creative activity, in this paper, we aim to show that the unconventional is closely connected to creativity.
Aim of the study. From the perspective of interpersonal relationships the leader has to continually create contexts in which people can express themselves. On the one hand, the success of leaders is contingent on the moment the development of their personal career starts. On the other hand, the team is thus given the opportunity to develop. In order for people in an organization to acknowledge a leader’s point of view, it is essential that the latter be compelling. From our point of view, most unconventional leaders possess an informal educational component which allows them to reveal their true potential without any constraints. When we talk about potential we have the native constituent in mind, whence we can adduce a few terms that define realities such as: multiple intelligence, emotional intelligence, social intelligence, adaptive intelligence, spiritual intelligence. The examples that we share in this paper, regarding the development of projects and organizational systems, state the ways in which unconventional leadership can occur. The unconventional leader will be ingenious, innovative, creative, charismatic, a finalizer and an example in the eyes of the team.
Keywords: unconventional, creativity, leadership, innovation, network.
JEL classification: M100
Introduction. Innovation is an integrating part of the re-vitalization plan of EU economy and it is one of the seven initiatives comprised in the 2020 Europe Strategy. The European Union supports through active policies the creative-innovative processes, as illustrated by the Cohesion Policy Program for 2007-2013 and by the ”Horizon 2020” Program for Research and Innovation.
Aim of the study. The present paper presents, from an organizational perspective, relevant aspects related to the question of innovation and innovation management, while pointing out the most important internal and external factors that favour the introduction of innovation into the sphere of processes that are run by organizations, as well as into the sphere of products and services provided by organizations. At the same time, the paper briefly presents the essential attributes of organizations which obtain competitive sustainable advantages through innovation.
Keywords: organization, innovation, management of innovation, contextual factors, intraorganizational factors, competitive advantage.
JEL Classification: D83, L21, L25, O31, O32.
The combinatorial innovation perspectives on designing social marketing programs
Introduction. Since the concepts of disruptive and sustaining innovations of Christiansen made their way into the models and policies both public and private during the last decade, different new approaches emerged. We do have now reliable benchmarks in analyzing the innovation field, in understanding the global trends or the national ones, financed by NGO’s, IO’s or national agencies. Understanding how innovation might become dominant in certain markets or contexts, it’s important, but the focus seems to have moved towards the outcome of innovations, on their impact on growth and the general wealth of the societies.
Aim of the study. Hal Varian’s concept of “combinatorial innovation” underlined the ascend of a new period of a tremendous burst of innovation. Now we can quickly and conveniently combine different Internetbased components, which are all bits, to create entirely new products and services, available for everyone. The mushrooming of nudging logic based initiatives all over the world, open the room for a new discussion – to what extent the intended target audiences of nudging initiatives will participate in co-generating of the new policies and campaigns, based on the employment of the combinatorial innovation?
Keywords: innovation, social marketing, behavioural economics
JEL Classification: I18, M31, O30
Introduction. Intensive learning methods, collecting significant information from case studies generate value and powerful business solutions. Facing avant-garde competitors and the real improvement of internal processes represent the stakes of high-performance companies. Opportunities also mean taking risks that make the difference between conventional solutions and unconventional solutions. In such circumstances, the differences are also achieved by the quality of the evaluation and the selection of team members.
Aim of the study. The paper aims to briefly present the relation between creativity and innovation and the ways in which a modern management can favourably influence the employees’ attitude in various contexts so that they are creative and, at the same time, finishers. We can mark out the fact that the management of a company can design intensive learning methods and facilitate the exchange of ideas in order to increase the speed of innovation in business.
Keywords: Creativity, innovation, management, leadership, competencies, roles
Introduction. The evolutionary trend of the global economy brings to the forefront the need to forecast and introduce new modalities to innovate strategic management systems focusing on the preoccupations regarding the continuous modernization and improvement of the strategic variants of coordination of the organization.
Aim of the study. In organizational context, innovation has various materializations, it includes both product and technology renewal, but it also takes into account organizational changes or the application of new business models. Applying such changes may have effects on quality and market share, ensuring improved competitiveness.
Keywords: innovation, innovation in management, organizational management, forecasting tools in innovation
JEL Classification: L21, M20, O31
Introduction. The future of organizations depends decisively on their ability to constantly improve their technologies and processes and, on this basis, to develop new products and services that correspond in quantitative and qualitative terms to the evermore diversified requirements of the demand bearers.
Aim of the study. The paper addresses relevant aspects related to creativity and innovation as inexhaustible sources of sustainable competitive advantages. The conceptual framework of creativity is defined and the important phases of a creative process are delimited. The main types of innovations are briefly presented, while at the same time the variables defining the innovation capacity of organizations are revealed. The final section of the paper highlights the key role of management in stimulating creative and innovative processes within organizations and in developing innovative projects.
Keywords: organization, creativity, innovation, management, sustainable competitive advantage.
JEL Classification: M10, L21, O31, O32.