Introduction. The shadow economy, perceived herein as reflecting the monetary transactions unreported to the related authorities, thereby being “exempted” from the payment to the same of the related taxes, represents a key issue affecting countries all around the world by decreasing, to a larger or lesser extent, the general welfare.
Aim of the study. Considering its importance, adequate measures should be taken so as to succeed in turning a situation apparently unsolvable into a favourable one. However, given that, despite of the law-related risks to which they are subject, the individuals involved in such activities are animated by very strong reasons to proceed that way, finding best possible solutions, either punitive in nature or stimulating and motivational, is a matter not only of knowledge, but also one of creative ideas, and, certainly, not a panacea, but a situational process.
Keywords: shadow economy, tax avoidance, welfare, macroeconomic policies, creative ideas
JEL Classification: E26, E61, H62
Introduction. Populism and its new forms, labelled as neo-populism, have become political practice lately with major consequences that exceed the political discourse sphere and have an impact on the content of representative democracies and parliamentarism. The analysis of the leadership of those following this direction shows a tendency in changing the relations between the leaders and the citizens they target, evolving from charisma to authoritarianism. Under these circumstances, the support of the majority of the electorate legitimizes unilateral decisions that damage the desires of the same majority and the trust in the representative democracy. Influencing the vote through generous economic and social programs has become the core of the electoral discourses. An important dimension of populism is the economic populism. The ones who will hold the power, will also have power over the resources allocation. Thus, the national interest can be replaced with the personal interest of some social categories that can also influence subsidiary categories of citizens. Therefore, the political populism is justified by the cultural populism, with emphasis on the ethnicity issue and the access to economic resources (only certain categories are entitled to access these limited resources, the rest of categories are considered inappropriate). The mimicry of representative democracy will bring the denial of some fundamental values of democracy: tolerance, fight against racism, equal opportunities etc. In the name of general welfare, the charismatic leadership leads to authoritarianism within deeply divided societies, which are affected by economic and social inequalities in uncertain times which are considered to be threatening, especially regarding the resources.
Aim of the study. Our research aims at bringing forward the relation between populism and leadership, and emphasizing the evolutions of populism in the political discourses towards legitimization of economic and cultural populism.
Keywords: populist discourse, economic populism, charismatic leadership, authoritarian leadership, reprezentative democracy
Introduction. Although tobacco products and tobacco crelated products have been described in numerous occasions by different worldwide known researchers, health specialists, political and public figures, as well as health associations as being extremely dangerous and harmful for individuals’ heath (being reported that “smoking causes many kinds of cancer, heart disease and respiratory illnesses which are fatal for many sufferers”), due to the physiologically and psychologically addictive nature (and not only) of their key ingredients (among which especially nicotine, which according to the specialists can be associated more with the effects induced by “heroin and cocaine – rather than shopping, chocolate or the Internet”), the tobacco industry seems to flourish year by year, although “it never claimed any health benefits”, gaining more and more market share and brand share by attracting more and more customers.
Aim of the study. This paper aims to addresses the following key aspects: first of all, the article is keen on providing an answer to the following question: “What is the place of the tobacco market and tobacco companies worldwide?” in order to show the importance of tobacco and tobacco related products worldwide and to stress the importance of this continuously growing market worldwide (despite its controversial nature); second of all, this paper is focused on providing an answer to the following question: “What is the evolution of the land devoted to growing tobacco and its importance for the tobacco companies worldwide?” in order to show connection that exists between the following elements: the land devoted to growing tobacco has known a continuous growth between 2000 and 2012 (and, of course, until today), due to the role played by tobacco and tobacco related products in the lives of the consumers worldwide; the tobacco companies become more and more powerful and more and more reach with each year; the lands devoted to growing tobacco are especially found in less developed countries and statistics have shown that a significant number of children are used in the tobacco industry; third of all, this work focuses itself on providing an answer to the following question: “Which are the biggest tobacco companies in the world?” in order to present the world’s tobacco industry leaders, as well as the latest trends and future predictions concerning this strong and competitive industry; and fourth of all, this research paper intends to provide an answer to the following question: “What are the latest tobacco market trends and hidden opportunities in Romania?” in order to show the latest tobacco market trends and hidden opportunities in Romania.
Keywords: tobacco market, tobacco companies’ worldwide, growing tobacco, tobacco related products, enterprise value, nicotine and tar addiction, market trends, market share, product revenue, profit, brand, hidden opportunities, sustainable economic growth, waste, Romania’s situation.
JEL Classification: D40, L66, Q18, P45, I00, O00
Introduction. Today the shifts in global economic, social, demographic and political trends will continue to put a tremendous pressure both on food supplies and on oil supplies, creating new challenges for food and oil manufacturers and consumers
Aim of the study. This paper aims to tackles the following key aspects: the economic and social perspectives of the world’s frozen food industry; the work done towards a sustainable, secure and healthy food supply; the need to ensure fair prices and a wide range of food and food access solutions; the need to implement a more environmentally sustainable, more resilient, profitable and competitive food chains; the need to deliver wholesome, healthy, safe and ethical and healthy food products; the solutions needed to support the retail frozen marketplace on long run; the need to create a balance between the costs of the retail frozen products and the prices of these products; the perspectives offered by the freezing technology and the quality of the products; the key developments to date concerning the world’s frozen food market, the countries where these types of products are mostly used and the world’s biggest frozen food producers and consumers.
Keywords: world’s frozen food market, frozen food industry, retail, foodservice, food safety and quality, freezing systems and technologies, key developments, sustainability, social responsibility opportunities, an economic and social perspective
JEL Classification: F63, I15, O00, O10, O14, Q01, Q55
Introduction. The evolutionary trend of the global economy brings to the forefront the need to forecast and introduce new modalities to innovate strategic management systems focusing on the preoccupations regarding the continuous modernization and improvement of the strategic variants of coordination of the organization.
Aim of the study. In organizational context, innovation has various materializations, it includes both product and technology renewal, but it also takes into account organizational changes or the application of new business models. Applying such changes may have effects on quality and market share, ensuring improved competitiveness.
Keywords: innovation, innovation in management, organizational management, forecasting tools in innovation
JEL Classification: L21, M20, O31
Introduction. The future of organizations depends decisively on their ability to constantly improve their technologies and processes and, on this basis, to develop new products and services that correspond in quantitative and qualitative terms to the evermore diversified requirements of the demand bearers.
Aim of the study. The paper addresses relevant aspects related to creativity and innovation as inexhaustible sources of sustainable competitive advantages. The conceptual framework of creativity is defined and the important phases of a creative process are delimited. The main types of innovations are briefly presented, while at the same time the variables defining the innovation capacity of organizations are revealed. The final section of the paper highlights the key role of management in stimulating creative and innovative processes within organizations and in developing innovative projects.
Keywords: organization, creativity, innovation, management, sustainable competitive advantage.
JEL Classification: M10, L21, O31, O32.
Introduction. Population aging is a phenomenon that should be considered when analysing demographic development because it affects economic development as well. Therefore reforming public pensions, health and long-term care for the elderly is to be considered. The speed of this process is also important because when the share of elderly in total population increase in a short period of time, it becomes difficult for the relevant institutions to adapt rapidly.
Aim of the study. This paper emphasizes the fact that it is necessary to ensure a balanced use of principles harmonizing all factors of production in order to provide sustainable economic development based on them. In general, economic development means improving the systematic, lasting and wide mass of the material conditions of life, representing the consumption conditions: food, clothing, housing, housing facilities, transport, communications, access to services and others. Such a common approach is adequate as it correctly expresses people’s expectations, as consumers in economy. However we can define economic development as a process resulting in the systematic growth of labour productivity or – given the circumstances in which the number of employers (or job providers) increases – the increase of the number of productive jobs. This approach does not contradict the first one; on the contrary: the systematic improvement of economic living conditions is not possible without the growth of labour productivity. The advantage of the second approach is that it refers to the most important force leading to the improvement of the living conditions for people as consumers and it forces us to consider phenomena this force depends on.
Keywords: economic development, social economy, sustainability, demography.
Introduction. Human resources management has been always a subject of debate when an organization started to analyze different approaches of reaching goals and fulfill objectives, especially when labour legislation come to discussions from the manager’s point of view. By so, ignoring the fact that human resources management has been tackled down by the instruments that has to be offer using knowledge and the special literature in the matter, we should take the opportunity and take a short regard from the personal perspective of the worker, both executive and non-executive, and to see if personal approach of creation is more or less valuable than the innovation of the science. In doing so, we consider proper to use Peter Drucker and Warren Bennis theories, that bring a path to the management and leadership works. We have to take into consideration that management is a science in the very perspective of the knowledge and by the principles that has to be respected when applied to obtain performance, well – shortly speaking – something that is learned, when the leadership is becoming more and more a science, but with a fresh personal start, taken from the features of one’s character that are given by birth or by a strong education and model.
Aim of the study. We consider that management – developed as a science, has a more theoretical approach, when leadership has a more personal, abilities related approach. Everything has to do with the fact that the society, in its continuous search for performance and economical gain, reached to a point where the management had no answers facing the capacity of one individual to be better by using his or hers ability to do things. By noticing that limit of the science of management and the unlimited individual capacity to bring more and more solutions, we must see what is the very perspective of both human resources management and labour legislation when it comes to create organizational politics for its future progress and development, because we must decide what should we do: choose management’s innovation or leadership creativity?
Keywords: leadership, management, human resources, creativity, innovation
Introduction. As a decisive factor in the existing economic competition in a world increasingly globalized, a market accessible through digitisation and unprecedented information speed, innovation has become the key objective that makes the difference between “to be” or “not to be” for every economic actor who aims to play a leading role on the market. Innovation has become a concept so widely spread that one cannot conceive the success of a business without this factor, whether we are talking about the innovation of a product, process or service or marketing and organization structure. Innovation has also became a key concept for public insitutions that intend to keep up with developments in technology, under the pressure from a society increasingly more connected to technology. The European Union promotes the concept of innovation at the center of the development strategy for the economic sector, thus generating the vision that governs three key tools: Research framework program, the cohesion policy and the framework program for competitiveness and innovation.
Aim of the study. In the present study we start from the definition of the concept of innovation. We approach the notion of innovative management perspective in the context of accessing European funding programs. Ultimately, the purpose of innovation management is the efficiency of innovative economic activity, i.e. in increasing productivity in balance with the principles of sustainable development. European funding programs stimulate the innovation management in entrepreneurship, public institutions andNGOs, whether we are talking about innovation in the economic field, at the level of social services or in the field of public services.
Keywords: Innovation Management, Structural funds, Absorption of European funds, Adaptation, Innovation, Research, Entrepreneurship, Innovation Firm, Innovation Processes, Invention Processes, Technological Innovation, productivity, efficiency, sustainable development, green economy, encouraging investments with innovative character.
JEL Classification: G23, Q48, O310, O32, O350, P18.
Creativity, Invention and Innovation – Catalysts of a Perfect Management
Lately, in the academic environment, as well as among management consultants and managers, the issue of management innovation is increasingly arising. It is considered that innovation in management has the unique advantage of making key changes in terms of competitiveness by implementing practices, structures, techniques, or processes that can facilitate the achievement of the organizational objectives. This can help create favourable conditions at the organizational level for building a favourable climate where creativity, innovation and inventiveness can become important factors of organizational performance by creating competitive products and services.