Author: Oana Simona Hudea
Introduction. In a world subject to a continuous process of globalisation, the concept of cross-cultural is frequently encountered in all fields of activity and at all levels. This is the reason why I undertook to approach such issue, not in its generic meaning, but customised for the leadership pattern.
Aim of the study. The present paper is meant to outline the positive effects that diversity may have on any organisation, subject to the condition that the said diversity be appropriately managed. As the leader is a person who, by power of example, makes other people adopting a similar attitude, the actions of the same oriented towards the fructification of the advantages of a cross-cultural environment, which are depicted in this study, are not only directly, but also indirectly, by synergy, impacting, in a positive way, on the organisation. Innovation, performance, competitive advantage and reputation are just some of the outcomes of finding unity in diversity.
Keywords: leadership, cross-cultural approach, globalisation, unity in diversity, competitive advantage
JEL Classification: M12, M14, M54
Introduction. What does leader development mean? It essentially refers to the extension of the capabilities and competences of individuals so as to effectively impact, in a positive way, by their behaviour and role playing, on the convergence of the entire organization to a common goal: success.
Aim of the study. This paper aims at rendering the main characteristics distinguishing leaders from common individuals, as well as from managers, while identifying the progressive steps and the key elements needed for leader development. Learning how to lead oneself is a prerequisite for leading others, but without continuous training, coaching or mentoring, and above all, without effective experience, individuals will never get to become real leaders.
Keywords: leader development, planned experience, action learning, coaching, mentoring
JEL Classification: M10, M12
Introduction.In the past decades, regional development has been a permanent source of interest among researchers and policymakers all over the world. The importance of entrepreneurship in the development of the national regional economies has been recognized largely in the specialty literature
Aim of the study. The aims of the present paper are to emphasize the importance of the rural entrepreneurship involvement in the regional development and to analyse the results of a research regarding the cooperation between the stakeholders of the local and regional development. A set of two hypotheses has been tested by using the data of a sociological survey focused on entrepreneurship and on the potential entrepreneurs from the rural area, belonging to five development regions. The results of our research highlight that the relationships between the rural area business environment and the other actors involved in the regional development (local public authorities, professional associations, institutions centred on regional development) are influenced by the framework of organisation and cooperation with the local business environment.
Keywords: entrepreneurship, potential entrepreneurs, public administration, regional development
JEL classification: P25; M13; R58
Introduction. Considering the examples of great personalities in the entire world, having imposed themselves as true leaders, who have constructively changed the history of their nations, we undertake to detect how much their decisions and actions were actually supported by the circumstances of the time, therefore identifying the extent of the real merits of the former. Leaders, by their conceptual meaning, represent individuals able to inspire trust to fellows and to move them to action, so that their behaviour is, without any doubt, significantly important in setting the patterns for the well-being of the people coordinated by the same, but without stimulating grounds, the synergic effect of their endeavours may remain ineffective.
Aim of the study. The present paper analyses the impact of national political leaders on the economic growth of a country, trying to reveal the favourable contexts and the available mechanisms at their hand, allowing them to exert such positive influence, as well as the constrains impeding the same to succeed in their attempt to outperform.
Keywords: national leaders, political leadership, economic growth, decision-makers, synergic effect
JEL Classification: F43, O10, O15
Introduction. The impact of leadership on economic welfare is therefore perceived from a double perspective: on one hand, company true leaders, exerting positive influences on the organisations they lead by providing jobs and by increasing revenues to the sate budget and, on the other hand, national true leaders, holding the mechanisms for stimulating, by their actions, both consumption and investment and, thus, for sustaining a sound economic growth.
Aim of the study. This paper has as main purpose to reveal, via a series of examples taken from real life, the dependence of economic welfare on good leadership, irrespective on the context of manifestation of the latter. Be they company leaders, therefore leaders acting at microeconomic level, or national leaders, herein embodied by governmental leaders, monetary authority leaders or presidential leaders, making decisions at macroeconomic level, true leadership is a continuous source of well being for any economy, as it represents the coagulation of miscellaneous economic touch constructive ideas and facts.
Keywords: company leaders, national leaders, economic welfare, microeconomic context, macroeconomic approach
JEL Classification: I31, O11, O12, M10, H20
Introduction. Given that the underground economy, as a whole, can stand for and/or deepen the budgetary deficit of any country, by diminishing the level of revenues to the state budget, leading, as a consequence, to restrictions as to the public spending volume, thereby adversely influencing the living standard of its population, the focus of the study is related to laying, to a reasonable extent, the general framework, for limiting, via well-grounded macroeconomic fiscal policies and other related, targeted measures, the negative effects of the same.
Aim of the study. The aim of the paper is to reveal the main causes and consequences of the underground economy, seen as a mix between the shadow economy, reflecting the officially unreported monetary transactions, and the black economy, consisting in the criminal monetary transactions associated with the latter.
Keywords: underground economy, shadow economy, black economy, budgetary deficit, macroeconomic policies
JEL Classification: E26, E61, H62
Introduction. The shadow economy, perceived herein as reflecting the monetary transactions unreported to the related authorities, thereby being “exempted” from the payment to the same of the related taxes, represents a key issue affecting countries all around the world by decreasing, to a larger or lesser extent, the general welfare.
Aim of the study. Considering its importance, adequate measures should be taken so as to succeed in turning a situation apparently unsolvable into a favourable one. However, given that, despite of the law-related risks to which they are subject, the individuals involved in such activities are animated by very strong reasons to proceed that way, finding best possible solutions, either punitive in nature or stimulating and motivational, is a matter not only of knowledge, but also one of creative ideas, and, certainly, not a panacea, but a situational process.
Keywords: shadow economy, tax avoidance, welfare, macroeconomic policies, creative ideas
JEL Classification: E26, E61, H62
Introduction. When coming about making decisions, individuals endeavour to correctly address issues and to choose the optimum variant among the available ones. Often, the decisional process is made based on the decision-maker philosophy, intuition and/or experience. Depending on the rapidity with which the decision should be made, and on the style of the one adopting it, such process might involve one or many individuals, the latter laying the grounds, via the miscellaneous ideas considered, in providing better results. But in any circumstances, especially in cases where we talk about managerial decisions, if the scientific approach is not effectively involved in the decisional process, the outcomes are less likely to be the most desirable ones.
Aim of the study. Operational research proves to represent, in these circumstances, one of the key instruments in supporting efficient decision-making, it providing the entitled entities with a series of analytical methods and techniques, such as those related to mathematical optimisation, simulations, neural network, game theory and many others, all of them extremely useful for efficiently achieving the established goals.
Keywords: operational research, management science, decision-making instrument, analytical methods, optimisation
JEL Classification: C18, C44, D81
Leadership And Organisational Strategies At Country Level. The Destiny Of A Nation
Introduction. Starting from the micro-social level and ending with the macro-social one, organising everything around us on the grounds of sound strategies and of a leadership-based approach represents a key element for achieving the established goals, irrespective of their nature, in terms of maximum possible efficiency. If when dealing with an organisation, be it lucrative or non-profit, small or large as size, adopting the right strategies and choosing the best leadership methods and techniques might look reasonably accessible, when coming about conceiving and applying the same to large aggregates, as it is the national economy, things could turn into real challenges very difficult to deal with.
Aim of the study. The present paper tries to render the most important issues to consider from such perspective, treating them both under the form of an experience-based analysis and under the one of proposed directions to follow for getting better results for all stakeholders.
Keywords: leadership, organisational strategies, macroeconomic framework, fiscal-budgetary and monetary policies, welfare
JEL Classification: E52, E61, E62, E63
Introduction. Leaders may be encountered in any field of activity and at any level: we may talk about leaders of small groups, family leaders, institutional leaders, project leaders, national leaders and so on. As leaders are dominant individuals succeeding in coagulating other forces around, being highly successful as result of the leading actions carried out or remaining for a long time, sometimes forever, in the memory of people, becomes the attribute of a subdivision thereof, namely great leaders.
Aim of the study. The present paper is meant to reveal groups of Romanian great leaders, having proved their ability in bringing, directly or indirectly, their contribution, at economic, social or strategic level, to a prosperous evolution of their domestic country or having imprinted a direction towards such future favourable evolution.
Keywords: Romanian leaders, great leaders, institutional leaders, project leaders, national leaders
JEL Classification: M12