Author: Florian Gurămultă
Introduction. Population aging is a phenomenon that should be considered when analysing demographic development because it affects economic development as well. Therefore reforming public pensions, health and long-term care for the elderly is to be considered. The speed of this process is also important because when the share of elderly in total population increase in a short period of time, it becomes difficult for the relevant institutions to adapt rapidly.
Aim of the study. This paper emphasizes the fact that it is necessary to ensure a balanced use of principles harmonizing all factors of production in order to provide sustainable economic development based on them. In general, economic development means improving the systematic, lasting and wide mass of the material conditions of life, representing the consumption conditions: food, clothing, housing, housing facilities, transport, communications, access to services and others. Such a common approach is adequate as it correctly expresses people’s expectations, as consumers in economy. However we can define economic development as a process resulting in the systematic growth of labour productivity or – given the circumstances in which the number of employers (or job providers) increases – the increase of the number of productive jobs. This approach does not contradict the first one; on the contrary: the systematic improvement of economic living conditions is not possible without the growth of labour productivity. The advantage of the second approach is that it refers to the most important force leading to the improvement of the living conditions for people as consumers and it forces us to consider phenomena this force depends on.
Keywords: economic development, social economy, sustainability, demography.
Introduction. Social policies have a special role in economy as they support the population, especially that part of the population experiencing a decrease in working capacity. Social services have a major role in social policies, whose domains of reference are: social security, housing, health, education, unemployment, etc. They do not only analyse society and its problems (inequality, poverty, discrimination, unemployment), but solve the respective issues by specific means including decisions and actions to increase welfare.
Aim of the study. When designing social policies, one must also consider the architecture of the structures implementing the programs through which this wealth is generated. Account should be taken of the fact that international studies show that people around the world are concerned about a number of serious demographic issues such as the steadily declining birth rate and the fast growth of the average age of population. Thus, the population of an increasing number of states is reduced, but at the same time we are witnessing a global aging phenomenon. These trends became visible decades ago; however, population aging has been having a negative impact in recent years. Throughout the world, states have reformed or reconfigured their public pension system, mainly by introducing private savings schemes for retirement. The causes are generally the same: the population ages, the periods of pension payments increase, the number of social security contributions decreases, public pension no longer provide a reasonable rate of replacement of the income from the active period, and the public pension systems are no longer enough for the payment of pensions.
Keywords: pension funds, prudential supervision, economic crisis
Introduction. As part of the population chooses to look for better earnings, may it be in their country or abroad, there is a phenomenon of massive departures to areas where earnings are higher, while there is an increased lack of labour factorin the home states.In the period between the end of 2007 and the beginning of 2008, when the economic and financial crisis wastriggered, until the present day, people have been trying to find solutions to keep up with the labour shortages that have occurred mainly in Eastern European countries, but not only. Against the background of the crisis and economies with declining performances, birth rates did not increase enough to fill the deficits which are caused, among other causes, by the families’ lack of prospect in their home countries and taking into account the opportunities to leave and settle in states with stronger economies. There have been many cases when parents have left their children in the care of others who have not left the country (grandparents, other family members or others); these children were deprived of the affection needed for a harmonious development, therefore patriotism was weakened, as the parents’ example was more powerful than any patriotic exhortation. Considering these circumstances, we must face the fact that these departures from the economy will become significant elements to be taken into account in the future. One should also consider that the newcomers, the migrants, could supply for the employment shortage at equal or lower costs, which may contribute to the efficiency of economic activity.
Aim of the study. This paper highlights the fact that in the context of the tumultuous events we are experiencing, individual shave to face realities where they are confronted with various choices, among which we mention either a higher income, where tasks are extremely difficult and spare time becomes less, or a lower income withmore leisure time. In any case, between the two maximal points, a company operating within an economy must acquire the production factors that will be used to obtain the necessary goods and services.
Keywords: cultural, demographic decline, economic growth, efficiency, fertility rate, financial crisis, migrant, mortality rate, religious, security research.
Introduction. Labour migration is mainly amplified by economic reasons. Labour force migration is a phenomenon which may have some benefits on international markets such as the European labour market considering its role in stabilizing the European labour market. At the same time it may represent a major benefit in balancing unemployment rate in the Euro area, or even in some European states which are aware of the labour market imbalances. However, it should be noted that population aging is recorded in the regions where dislocations occur: it is a phenomenon which may generate a decline in the economic growth and affect the living standard, should there be no thorough analysis. Therefore a closer monitoring of migration is mandatory, as aging population is one of its consequences, which must be investigated in the regional context.
Aim of the study. This paper emphasizes that population aging concerns the world, the public environment and scientific research and a discerning approach may create the assumptions for economic revival. Workforce nowadays acknowledges realities involving permanent adjustment and reorientation depending on developments in the technical and technological fields and its migration has become an almost instantaneous phenomenon. For this purpose, it is necessary to consider the fact that along with migration, dislocations in the active population occur, which often are not immediately supported by new contingents; therefore disturbances are created both on the labour market but also in the demographic plan. It is important to seek solutions to minimize their impact on the Romanian economy affecting economic growth and the level of development.
Keywords: demography, aging, migration, economic growth, standard of living.
JEL Classification: J11, J61, O15
Introduction. This paper highlights the effects of population aging; it has a negative impact on economy in general but also on the regional economic development in particular. As it happened in most European countries, Romania has been experiencing economic and social effects expressing the multiple aspects and various elements of a population in a continuous downward aging trend. Aging was more visible starting with 2000, year in which the elder population has exceeded young population; it is a growing phenomenon, as, according to statistics, the share of the elder population (aged over 65) has exceeded the share of young population (between 0 and 14 years). The diminished fertility rate and mortality rate are the determining factors which have accentuated population aging.
Aim of the study. The most important elements which contribute to a diminished fertility rate in modern society are culture, religion, demographic policy as well as other elements, more specific. A significant effect of the diminished fertility rate is the progressive reduction of capable future generations fit to enter the labour market, in order to increase the contributions to social health and insurance budgets which are necessary for payments for pensioners. It is important to acknowledge that goods which will bring added value in the economy cannot be created without human effort so as to improve the quality of life; otherwise, the diminished number of young people able to work leads inevitably to a lowered long-term development capacity.
Keywords: demographic, population aging, young population
JEL classification: H55, H61, J10, O15