Introduction. This paper highlights the effects of population aging; it has a negative impact on economy in general but also on the regional economic development in particular. As it happened in most European countries, Romania has been experiencing economic and social effects expressing the multiple aspects and various elements of a population in a continuous downward aging trend. Aging was more visible starting with 2000, year in which the elder population has exceeded young population; it is a growing phenomenon, as, according to statistics, the share of the elder population (aged over 65) has exceeded the share of young population (between 0 and 14 years). The diminished fertility rate and mortality rate are the determining factors which have accentuated population aging.
Aim of the study. The most important elements which contribute to a diminished fertility rate in modern society are culture, religion, demographic policy as well as other elements, more specific. A significant effect of the diminished fertility rate is the progressive reduction of capable future generations fit to enter the labour market, in order to increase the contributions to social health and insurance budgets which are necessary for payments for pensioners. It is important to acknowledge that goods which will bring added value in the economy cannot be created without human effort so as to improve the quality of life; otherwise, the diminished number of young people able to work leads inevitably to a lowered long-term development capacity.
Keywords: demographic, population aging, young population
JEL classification: H55, H61, J10, O15