Author: Adela Coman
Introduction. Much of the empirical research has defined creativity as an outcome, focusing on the production of new and useful ideas concerning products, services, processes and procedures. Using this definition, research has examined creative solutions to business problems, creative business strategies and creative changes in job processes.
Aim of the study. This paper provides a review of old and new research examining contextual factors that can foster or hinder creativity at the individual and organizational level. In particular, we examine the role of leadership and the use of different human resource practices for developing a work context that is supportive of creativity. In the end, we discuss practical implications for managers and highlight some directions and areas for future research.
Keywords: creativity, intrinsic motivation, risk taking, organizational climate
JEL Classification: O31, O39, M12
Introduction. All over the European Union companies face the same problem: a dramatic gender gap in leadership. Men far outnumber women in senior business positions in developed and less developed countries, including Romania. What makes leadership positions so inaccessible to Romanian women? Senior women leaders in Western Europe mentioned stereotyping as an important barrier to consider.
Aim of the study. To demonstrate that stereotyping is indeed a factor in the leadership gender gap, it was first necessary to substantiate that stereotype-based perceptions of women’s leadership do in fact exist in Romania. In the second part of this research, perceived existing differences between men and women leaders were scrutinized and compared to their standardized profiles as indicated by the Hogan Assessment Systems, both at the organizational and individual levels. Whether women stereotyping was found to be relatively low in Romania, differences in personality traits between men and women seem to impede women from advancing to the top management positions. It also explains the emergence of a diversity of leadership styles.
Keywords: gender gap, leadership, gender roles, personality assessment
JEL Classification: M10, M20, L290.
Introduction. Research on stereotypes and stereotyping (Acker, 1990; Bergeron, Block & Echtenkamp, 2006; Carton and Rosette, 2011; Heilman, 2012) has so far shown that female leaders, in particular, can experience increased threat when attempting leadership positions in organizations.
Aim of the study. In this article, I explore the many ways in which stereotypes can undermine women performance in leadership and I discuss the factors that may help women become less vulnerable when faced with negative stereotyping. These factors are analyzed at various levels – the individual, the organizational and the situational/contextual levels. In the end, I suggest some ways designed to increase women’s belief in their leadership abilities as well as some interventions meant to determine organizations to become “aware” of their unconscious biases when evaluating women job positions and performance.
Keywords: negative stereotyping, stereotype threat, vulnerability, reactance, growth mindset
JEL Classification: M10, M20
Introduction. It has long been recognized that entrepreneurship is the vital force that drives innovation and economic growth. Entrepreneurship is shaped by a portfolio of forces and factors.
Aim of the study. In this paper we want to underline that entrepreneurial leadership is critical for the achievement of entrepreneurial goals. Also we try to identify commonalities between the two domains, entrepreneurship and leadership, with a particular focus on what entrepreneurship could gain from more explicit incorporation of some leadership issues. Since change is constant, organizations need to be more flexible on their path to growth. In this process, entrepreneurs undergo a process of identity change by acquiring new behaviors and skills that sustain organizational transformation. Moreover, by adopting a sympathetic leadership style, entrepreneurs accommodate both creativity and organizational synergies that may help their organizations to develop and prosper.
Keywords: entrepreneurship, leadership, creativity
JEL Classification: M19, M29
Introduction. Since museums are community focused, they play an important social role acting as a cohesion factor and therefore generate social value. On the other hand, museums educate the public, therefore in a broad sense, they have a public mission which is valuable by definition. While monetary gains are measurable and becoming more important, we argue that social cohesion and museums’ commitment to communities should prevail, as museums are creators of cultural capital and individual and collective meaning. Finally, some related discussions and future directions of research are proposed.
Aim of the study. In this paper we discuss museums as cultural institutions, as important part of cultural heritage and creators of cultural capital. Museums are also credible economic actors: they generate revenue and, in many ways, they behave like a for-profit organization. We discuss the economics of museums in terms of supply, demand, competition on the marketplace and output.
Keywords: cultural heritage, museums, economic value
JEL Classification: Z11, Z32, M20