Introduction. In a time full of financial convulsions with deep repercussions on the world wide economies, crediting is one of the easiest and serious options in finding alternative solutions for economic recovery. Using Crediting as a tool for economic recovery must be supported by all decision-factors, but not in any circumstances. The perspective of economic development in the European Union also requires the observance of medium and long-term desiderates such as coagulated ones in the concept of sustainable development.
Aim of the study. This paper aims to highlight that the way in which crediting derives and its effects on sustainable development represents one of the followed ways in any market economy in order to obtain the desired effects, not only economic, but also social and environmental.
Keywords: development, credits, regulating, surveillance, financial market.
Introduction.The basic function of money is to be exchanged by means of payment depending on the requirements and characteristics of trade. Conducting payments must be made in optimal conditions, thus ensuring fluency and safety of the entire payment process. Currency must react to modern means of payment, being influenced by external economic environment, society, contemporary civilization, conducting more frequent payments through banks and evolving to sign electronic monetary impulse, breaking total real value of the currency of contents constituting challenges and responses of the coin.
Aim of the study. Our research focuses on issues related to the payments sector, the Smartcard, the Electronic Banking, payment systems based on bank cards, the Cyber cash, and the electronic payment systems (1) Net Cash and (2) E-Cash, Micro-payment systems with (1) Millicent and (2) Cyber Coin, as well as the electronic check payments.
Keywords: electronic payment system, payments sector, smartcard, electronic banking, bank cards, cyber cash, net cash, e-cash, micro-payment systems, Millicent, cyber coin, electronic check payments, development, economic and a managerial perspective
Introduction. Electronic commerce or e-commerce is the electronic transaction performed using any computer. Such trade means, specifically, any exchange between a seller and a buyer who visits a web site that is performed after a commercial transaction.
Aim of the study. This paper aims to presents the electronic commerce with its definitions, historical evolution and importance, it’s the main forms, the advantages and disadvantages of e-commerce, the electronic commerce versus traditional commerce as well as the electronic commerce in Romania. In this research we have emphasised the role and the importance of the e-commerce in comparison with the traditional commerce, stressing the fact that it has many advantages that underpin the on-going development and success of this trade: time; the availability of virtual stores: program almost non-stop, every day of the year; the possibility of free decision; the possibility of purchasing products even outside the borders of the country the buyer; communication, particularly internationally, low cost, the relations with suppliers and customers and its importance for small businesses using e-commerce which can compete with large companies.
Keywords: electronic commerce, traditional commerce, development, supply chain management, customer relationship, economic and a managerial perspective, Romania’s experience.
Introduction. Ecotourism has generated great interest from governments, tourism enterprises, tourists, conservation groups, the private sector and other stakeholders. This interest is generated from more vantage that ecotourism has, it generates profit (company, restaurant, etc…) without destroy the quality of the environment, in fact, it contributes to the conservation and protection of natural ecosystems and the socio-economic development, maintenance and enhancement of the traditions and culture of local people. Ecotourism has disadvantages, too. It is lived on the nature and the use it for realize the ecotourism, but using it that ruin herself.
Aim of the study. Ecotourism is small-scale tourism that visits areas of exceptional natural and cultural interests in a manner that: (1) protects the nature; (2) preserves the culture; (3) enhances the local economy; and (4) educates the tourists.
Keywords: Ecotourism, protected area, development, tourism, stakeholder, community local.
JEL Classification: N00, O10, O13, Q00, Q01, Q56
Introduction. The knowledge economy model is marked by investment in research, development, innovation and human capital which is the key drivers of modern economy for increasing returns. The allocation of resources in human capital brings performance and benefits to companies investing in their employees. Moreover, in present, once with the globalization and economic crisis, the world economy is crossing through powerful changes and challenges.
Aim of the study. The paper aims to highlight the role of human capital in the new organizational management strategies focused on achieving a high level of competitiveness, innovation and development through management and leadership strategies.
Keywords: human capital, management, development, competitiveness, investment, organization
JEL Classification: J24, O15
Introduction. The management of energy resources, as a component of modern management, has become one of the most important pillars in the context of European energy policy, in order to have more competitive European companies, economies, and to a large extent – states.
Aim of the study. The purpose of this paper is to bring to attention the necessity to take steps forward to create a strong link between resources and development, which is essential if one state aims to create a sustainable and brighter future. A weak management of energy affects energy prices, emissions targets, and legislation, all of which lead to several compelling reasons why, at all levels one state should focus on saving energy: in businesses, public-sector/government organizations, and homes. The energy industry is one of the most capital-consuming industries in the world. Relatively higher energy prices place a drag on economic growth everywhere except in economies that are dominated by energy production. The Romanian main energy institutions, next to the Ministry of Energy, are acting to the improvement of energy efficiency, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, proceeding on maintaining the energy prices stable and the promotion of the renewable energy sources.
Keywords: management of energy resources, European energy policy, development, energy prices, emission targets, energy industry, Romanian institutions.
JEL Classification: O44, Q21, Q34, Q43, Q54.
Introduction. The advances of knowledge and science are immense, and the development based on them follows a galloping trend, even aggressive and precipitous, as a breakage of clouds. However, from the point of view of the security of systems, processes, society, economy and life, the world does not follow a straightforward, good, safe and precise direction, but a very complicated one in which the predictable, desired and calculated with rigor and precision effects are largely faded and even canceled by those that are chaotic and unpredictable.
Aim of the study. The strategic balance of mankind is a precarious one, based rather on balancing the threat than controlling it and its vulnerabilities. Of course, responsible people are aware of this dangerous trend and do their best to control it. But the chances of success in this increasingly uneven and increasingly vulnerable environment are, in turn, more and more controversial. And yet, such chances still exist.
Keywords: migration, development, war, security, sustainability
JEL Classification: Q01, O15, F220, F52, H56
Introduction. Under the incidence of COVID-19 pandemic, everything is chanced from behavior to action patterns. Research indicates that lack of flexibility and finding short term solutions to changes can be a myopia of leadership. People, organizations and governments are leading their actions in a context characterized by the unknown, the lack of predictability and hazy horizons, in which the only weapon is the ability to adapt. Adaptive leadership should be a solution for individuals and organizations to adjust to changing environments and effectively respond to recurring problems. The adaptive leadership involves changing behavior in appropriate ways as the situation changes and it requires knowledge and the tools to solve the problem efficiently.
Aim of the study. The article is an exploratory study based on author`s observations and literature investigation on the subject investigated during COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, the paper aims to investigate how companies acted in the first phase of the pandemic (as first actions), but also how organizational leadership can be transformed into current conditions to achieve efficiency. The article provide a perspective of the adaptive leadership theory as a basis for business to change their traditional leadership into a process that is not constrained by hierarchical and one-directional notions of leadership (Scott Du Rue, 2011) because in current context, leadership should develop and adapt in dynamic contexts. Limitations: the paper is a theoretical approach that is trying to guide the organizations in the process of acting in a business, economic and social environment profoundly changed by the pandemic effects. Another limitation is the period investigated; the author includes only the actions in the early stage of pandemic (the first three months).
Keywords: pandemic, leadership, organization, crisis, development, adaptative leadership
JEL Classification: H12, M12, M54