Introduction. The macro environment refers to that side of the external environment that has the capacity to influence the companies’ activity, while acting indirectly through their microenvironment. Additionally, the macro environment’s influence can be remarked especially on a long-term perspective, being sometimes weak and somewhat uncontrollable. In this regard, some examples can be offered, such as: the unexpected activity of the volcanoes (especially after being “asleep” for a longer period of time or even after declared “inactive”); the unexpected devastating and destructive natural phenomena, such as, typhoons, hurricanes, tornados, or even floods;the unpredicted droughts; and economic phenomenon having the capacity of spreading world-wide a high and unexpected pace, such as the global financial crises.
Aim of the study. This paper focuses on the companies’ economic, social and research – development – innovation potential in terms of the macro environment. Moreover, the study takes into considerations the nowadays key elements, perspectives and challenges concerning this subject. Furthermore, this approach is a theoretical one, chosen due to the necessity of presenting the essential macro environment’s elements influencing and affecting the companies’ economic, social, cultural, technical, political and legal evolution in the marketplace, while taking into consideration elements such as competitiveness, open market, consumers’ behaviour, needs, wishes and desires, infrastructure and research – development – innovation potential. The first part of the paper focuses upon the main characteristics of the key components of the macro environment, such as, the economic, socio-cultural, technologic, demographic, natural, political and legal elements. The second part of the scientific study tackles the aspects related to the companies’ potential, in terms of their economic, social and research – development – innovation perspectives. The conclusions, limitations as well as future implications section presents the basic ideas that result from this study, as well as the elements that could be improved or even further addressed into the near future.
Keywords: macro environment; companies; economic, socio-cultural, technical, natural, demographic, political and legal elements, research – development – innovation potential, Gross Domestic Product (G.D.P.), infrastructure, financial and monetary factors, economic perspectives and challenges.
Introduction. This paper highlights the effects of population aging; it has a negative impact on economy in general but also on the regional economic development in particular. As it happened in most European countries, Romania has been experiencing economic and social effects expressing the multiple aspects and various elements of a population in a continuous downward aging trend. Aging was more visible starting with 2000, year in which the elder population has exceeded young population; it is a growing phenomenon, as, according to statistics, the share of the elder population (aged over 65) has exceeded the share of young population (between 0 and 14 years). The diminished fertility rate and mortality rate are the determining factors which have accentuated population aging.
Aim of the study. The most important elements which contribute to a diminished fertility rate in modern society are culture, religion, demographic policy as well as other elements, more specific. A significant effect of the diminished fertility rate is the progressive reduction of capable future generations fit to enter the labour market, in order to increase the contributions to social health and insurance budgets which are necessary for payments for pensioners. It is important to acknowledge that goods which will bring added value in the economy cannot be created without human effort so as to improve the quality of life; otherwise, the diminished number of young people able to work leads inevitably to a lowered long-term development capacity.
Keywords: demographic, population aging, young population
JEL classification: H55, H61, J10, O15