Author: Dragoș–Cătălin Apostu

Introduction. Leaders of the Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) often face extraordinary challenges – both at a personal and organisational level. These challenges are demanding, and distinct from those faced by governments or the for-profit sector. NGO leaders are often isolated and unsupported. There is talk of a leadership deficit, because of the shortage of talented leaders and the growth of the non-profit sector generally. As a result there is some urgency in attempts to develop a new generation of leaders, and to provide relevant support to existing and future leaders. Leadership development programmes designed for NGO leaders must as a consequence incorporate best practice and current experience rather than rehashing tired, traditional approaches to leadership training.

Aim of the study. This paper examines the role of leaders and leadership in NGOs. It draws on the analysis of recent research into the characteristics of NGO leaders, and explores the challenges of designing leadership development programmes appropriate to the needs of NGOs. This paper identifies the elements of successful leadership development, and assesses the skills or competencies that need be developed.
Keywords: NGO, skills and competencies, leadership, capacity building, leadership development programmes, change and transformation

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Introduction. The term civil society has been perceived by different scholars to be associated by any organized group of people independent from the state and partly self sustaining. The question of civil society organizations being non-profit making to my understanding is still debatable due to the fact that according to some scholars even business entities and trade unions can be categorized as civil society organizations or associations.

Aim of the study. This paper tries to focus/put emphasis on what are Civil Society Organizations are and gives an outline of categories of such Organizations in Europe, it briefly looks at Governance and Democratic Governance concepts. It will then after focus on the major roles of Civil Society Organizations in European democratic Governance drawing other examples also from other countries where possible and try to bring out scholarly arguments on the negative impacts of civil society organizations. The paper ends with conclusions and analysis of SC participation through EU’s multilevel governance.
Keywords: civil society, democracy, governance, european union

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